De Craciun – Cele mai frumoase colinde straine

Kurtmann

Colinde de Craciun si Anul Nou

colinde

De Craciun – Cele mai frumoase colinde straine

Colindele sunt acele cântece sau imnuri ale caror versuri au ca temă Crăciunul sau sezonul de iarnă in general si care se cântă in mod tradotional in zilele premergătoare Crăciunului.

Primele imnuri specifice Crăciunului au aparut in Roma in sec. IV. , cum ar fi “Veni redemptor gentium”, compus de Ambrozie, arhiepiscopul de Milano, ca mod de afirmare a doctrinei Intrupării, in opozitie cu arianismul – erezie care contesta caracterul divin al lui Isus Cristos.

In sec. IX si X colindele sunt introduse in mănăstirile din nordul Europei, sub formă de strofe cu rimă. In sec. XII, un calugăr parizian pune colindele pe melodii populare si astfel se ajunge foarte aproape de forma pe care o cunoastem astazi.

Initial, colindele erau compuse in limba latină, fiind adresate cântaretilor din biserici si, probabil, audientei instruite de la curtile regale.

Maddy Prior & The Carnival Band – Personent Hodie

Lyrics:
Personent hodie voces puerulae
Laudantes jucunde qui nobis est natus
Summo deo datus
Et de virgineo

In mundo nascitur pannis in volvitur
Praesepi ponitur stabulo brutorum
Rector supernorum
Perdidit spolia princeps infernorum

Magi tres venerunt parvulum inquirunt
Parvulum inquirunt stellulam sequendo
Ipsum adoranto
Aurum thus et myrrham ei offerendo

Omnes clericuli pariter pueri
Cantent ut angeli adventisti mundo
Laudes tibi fundo
Ideo gloria in excelsis deo

Traducere:
In aceasta zi voci tinere canta
Laudandu-l pe Cel care s-a nascut pentru noi,
Daruit de Dumnezeu,
Nascut de o fecioară.

Nascut in lume, infasurat in scutece,
Asezat intr-o iesle dintr-un staul,
Domnul tuturor.
Stapânul iadului este pierdut!

Trei magi au venit si si-au oferit darurile lor,
Ei au cautat copilul urmand o stea,
Oferind aur, tămâie si mir
In adoratie.

Toti clericii si cantaretii
Cântă impreuna cu ingerii:
“Ai venit pe lume, laudat sa fii
Slavă lui Dumnezeu si Celor de sus!”

Pentru ca latina nu era o limba cunoscuta de populatie, in sec. XIII, in Franta, Germania si in special Italia, sub influenta lui Francisc de Asissi, se dezvolta o puternica traditie de interpretare a colindelor de Crăciun in limba maternă.

Colindele in limba engleză apar consemnate documentar in prima jumatate a sec. XV.
La inceput colindele se cantau si in alte ocazii, nu numai de Craciun, cum era – spre exemplu – sarbatoarea recoltei. Mai tarziu ele au ajuns sa fie asociate in mod specific Craciunului. Popularitatea lor a crescut dupa Reformă in tarile in care biserica protestantă a câstigat influentă.

Sa ascultam doua colinde care au aparut tiparite pentru prima oara in 1833, in lucrarea lui William B. Sandys, intitulata “Colinde antice si moderne de Craciun”:

The First Noel – Church Choir (Christmas Carol)

Lyrics:
The First Noel, the Angels did say
Was to certain poor shepherds in fields as they lay
In fields where they lay keeping their sheep
On a cold winter’s night that was so deep.
Noel, Noel, Noel, Noel
Born is the King of Israel!
They looked up and saw a star
Shining in the East beyond them far
And to the earth it gave great light
And so it continued both day and night.
Noel, Noel, Noel, Noel
Born is the King of Israel!
And by the light of that same star
Three Wise men came from country far
To seek for a King was their intent
And to follow the star wherever it went.
Noel, Noel, Noel, Noel
Born is the King of Israel!
This star drew nigh to the northwest
O’er Bethlehem it took its rest
And there it did both pause and stay
Right o’er the place where Jesus lay.
Noel, Noel, Noel, Noel
Born is the King of Israel!
Then entered in those Wise men three
Full reverently upon their knee
And offered there in His presence
Their gold and myrrh and frankincense.
Noel, Noel, Noel, Noel
Born is the King of Israel!
Then let us all with one accord
Sing praises to our heavenly Lord
That hath made Heaven and earth of nought
And with his blood mankind has bought.
Noel, Noel, Noel, Noel
Born is the King of Israel!

Hark! The Herald Angels Sing

Lyrics:
Hark the herald angels sing
“Glory to the newborn King!
Peace on earth and mercy mild
God and sinners reconciled”
Joyful, all ye nations rise
Join the triumph of the skies
With the angelic host proclaim:
“Christ is born in Bethlehem”
Hark! The herald angels sing
“Glory to the newborn King!”
Christ by highest heav’n adored
Christ the everlasting Lord!
Late in time behold Him come
Offspring of a Virgin’s womb
Veiled in flesh the Godhead see
Hail the incarnate Deity
Pleased as man with man to dwell
Jesus, our Emmanuel
Hark! The herald angels sing
“Glory to the newborn King!”
Hail the heav’n-born Prince of Peace!
Hail the Son of Righteousness!
Light and life to all He brings
Ris’n with healing in His wings
Mild He lays His glory by
Born that man no more may die
Born to raise the sons of earth
Born to give them second birth
Hark! The herald angels sing
“Glory to the newborn King!”

In aceeasi lucrare a lui William B. Sandys, apare si “God Rest Ye Merry Gentlemen” , un colind mai recent, compus abia pe la mijlocul sec. XVIII:

Libera – God Rest Ye Merry Gentlemen

Lyrics:
God rest ye merry, gentlemen, let nothing you dismay,
Remember Christ our Saviour was born on Christmas day.
To save us all from Satan’s power when we were gone astray.
O tidings of comfort and joy, comfort and joy,
O tidings of comfort and joy.
Now to the Lord sing praises all you within this place,
And with true love and brotherhood each other now embrace.
This holy tide of Christmas all others doth deface.
O tidings of comfort and joy…

Datorita unor compozitori ca Arthur Sullivan, colinde ca “Good King Wenceslas”, au ajuns extrem de populare, numarandu-se printre cele mai preferate in a doua jumatate a sec. XVIII. Textul acestui colind se bazează pe o legendă despre sfantul Wenceslaus, care il ajută pe un om sărman in a doua zi de Craciun (de sfantul Stefan) si constituie un indemn la milostenie:

Loreena McKennitt – Good King Wenceslas

Lyrics:
Good King Wenceslas looked out
On the Feast of Stephen
When the snow lay ’round about
Deep and crisp and even
Brightly shone the moon that night
Though the frost was cruel
When a poor man came in sight
Gath’ring winter fuel
“Hither, page, and stand by me,
If thou know’st it, telling
Yonder peasant, who is he?
Where and what his dwelling?”
“Sire, he lives a good league hence,
Underneath the mountain
Right against the forest fence
By Saint Agnes’ fountain.”
“Bring me flesh and bring me wine
Bring me pine-logs hither
Thou and I shall see him dine
When we bear them thither.”
Page and monarch, forth they went
Forth they went together
Through the rude wind’s wild lament
And the bitter weather.
“Sire, the night is darker now
And the wind blows stronger
Fails my heart, I know not how
I can go no longer.”
“Mark my footsteps, good my page
Tread thou in them boldly
Thou shall find the winter’s rage
Freeze thy blood less coldly.”
In his master’s step he trod
Where the snow lay dinted
Heat was in the very sod
Which the Saint had printed
Therefore, Christian men, be sure
Wealth or rank possessing
Ye, who now will bless the poor
Shall yourselves find blessing.

Teologul Isaac Watts (1674-1748) a compus celebrul sau “Joy to the World” care a devenit foarte repede un colind popular, desi se crede ca intentia sa nu a fost ca acest cantec sa fie interpretat doar de Craciun, ci si in alte ocazii festive:

Joy to the World

Lyrics:
Joy to the World , the Lord is come!
Let earth receive her King;
Let every heart prepare Him room,
And Heaven and nature sing,
And Heaven and nature sing,
And Heaven, and Heaven, and nature sing.

Joy to the World, the Savior reigns!
Let men their songs employ;
While fields and floods, rocks, hills and plains
Repeat the sounding joy,
Repeat the sounding joy,
Repeat, repeat, the sounding joy.

No more let sins and sorrows grow,
Nor thorns infest the ground;
He comes to make His blessings flow
Far as the curse is found,
Far as the curse is found,
Far as, far as, the curse is found.

He rules the world with truth and grace,
And makes the nations prove
The glories of His righteousness,
And wonders of His love,
And wonders of His love,
And wonders, wonders, of His love.

Celebrul colind “Stille Nacht” este creatia austriacului Franz Xaver Gruber pe versurile preotului austriac Joseph Mohr si a fost interpretat pentru prima oara la Nikolaus-Kirche din localitatea Oberndorf, Austria, in anul 1818.

Stille Nacht (Silent Night)

“O Tannenbaum” (O Christmas Tree), este un colind de Craciun din regiunea Salzburg. Varianta cea mai cunoscuta a fost scrisa de organistul si compozitorul Ernst Anschutz, in 1824. Melodia este un vechi cantec traditional german:

O Tannenbaum (O Christmas Tree)

Lyrics:
O Tannenbaum, O Tannenbaum, wie grün sind deine Blätter.
Du grünst nicht nur zur Sommerzeit, Nein auch im Winter wenn es schneit.
O Tannenbaum, O Tannenbaum, Wie grün sind deine Blätter!
O Tannenbaum, O Tannenbaum, dein Kleid will mich was lehren.
Die Hoffnung und Beständigkeit gibt Mut und Kraft zu jeder Zeit!
O Tannenbaum, O Tannenbaum, dein Kleid will mich was lehren.

Piesa “Still, Still, Still” este un alt colind german bazat pe o melodie compusa de Suss (1819). Versurile originale au fost schimbate de-a lungul timpului:

Still, Still, Still

In Franta, cel mai cunoscut colind de Craciun este “Il este ne le Divin Enfant”, provenit din regiunea Provence. El derivă dintr-o melodie traditionala veche, “La tete bizarde”, datand din sec al XVII –lea.

Il est ne le Divin Enfant

Lyrics:
Il est ne, le divin Enfant,
Jouez, hautbois, résonnez, musettes;
Il est ne, le divin Enfant;
Chantons tous son avènement!

Depuis plus de quatre mille ans,
Nous le promettaient les Prophètes;
Depuis plus de quatre mille ans,
Nous attendions cet heureux temps.
Il est ne, le divin Enfant…

Ah! qu’ll est beau, qu’il est charmant,
Que ses grâces sont parfaites!
Ah! qu’ll est beau, qu’ll est charmant,
Qu’il est doux le divin Enfant!
Il est né, le divin Enfant…

Une etable est son logement,
Unpeu de paille, sa couchette,
Une etable est son logement,
Pour un Dieu, quel abaissement!
Il est né, le divin Enfant…

Ô Jésus! Ô Roi tout puissant!
Tout petit enfant que vous êtes,
Ô Jésus! Ô Roi tout puissant!
Régnez sur nous entièrement!
Il est né, le divin Enfant…

Un emotionant colind provenind din zona crestin-ortodoxa, cu imagini reprezentand icoane cu Buna Vestire:

Colind rusesc

Poate cel mai cunoscut colind provenind din zona ortodoxă este Carol of the Bells. El a fost realizat de compozitorul ucrainean Mikola Dimitrovici Leontovici si a fost interpretat in premieră in anul 1916. Acest colind a cunoscut numeroase interpretari de-a lungul timpului:

Carol of the Bells

Trans-Siberian Orchestra – Christmas Eve

In Grecia, in dimineata Craciunului, atmosfera se umple de cantece interpretate de copii. Ei colinda pe la casele oamenilor acompaniati de flaut sau doar de triangluri, pe care le lovesc cu betisoarele, sunetul obtinut fiind asemanator cu clinchetul de clopotel. Colindele lor, numite “kalandas”, sunt insotite si de urari de prosperitate si viata lunga adresate stapanului casei. Copiii primesc dulciuri traditionale, alune si fructe:

Colindă greceasca

In unele tari ca Anglia (carols), Polonia (koleda), Romania (colinde) sau Bulgaria (koledari), Grecia (kalandas) exista traditia ca de Craciun, grupuri de cantareti sa umble din casa in casa, cantand colinde si primind in schimb daruri, bani, fructe, dulciuri, semn al milosteniei pe care spiritul Craciunului o aduce in sufletul oamenilor.

In zilele de astazi, colindele se canta in mod regulat la ceremonia religioasă de Crăciun.
Unele colinde de Craciun sunt patrunse de un sentiment profund religios, altele sunt laice si cu toate acestea sunt considerate colinde, intrucat se bucura de o largă acceptare.

We Wish You a Merry Christmas

Lyrics:
We wish you a merry Christmas
We wish you a merry Christmas
We wish you a merry Christmas
And a Happy New Year X3
Good tidings to you
Wherever you are
Good tidings for Christmas
And a Happy New Year!

Feliz Navidad

Lyrics:
Feliz Navidad, Feliz Navidad
Feliz Navidad, Prospero año y felicidad.
Feliz Navidad, Feliz Navidad
Feliz Navidad, Prospero año y felicidad.
I want to wish you a Merry Christmas,
I want to wish you a Merry Christmas,
I want to wish you a Merry Christmas,
From the bottom of my heart

In Marea Britanie, incepand cu mijlocul lunii noiembrie si pe toata durata lunii decembrie, in partea de nord a regiunilor Derbyshire si Sheffield, oamenii obisnuiesc sa se intalneasca in carciumi pentru a canta impreuna colinde. Este unul din cele mai remarcabile exemple ale unei traditii populare legate de sarbatoarea Craciunului din Marea Britanie.

Rolling Downwards

Craciunul e prilej de bucurie si pentru irlandezi:

Christmas in Killarney

Lyrics:
The holly green, the ivy green
The prettiest picture you’ve ever seen
Is Christmas in Killarney
With all of the folks at home

It’s nice, you know, to kiss your beau
While cuddling under the mistletoe
And Santa Claus you know, of course
Is one of the boys from home

The door is always open
The neighbors pay a call
And Father John before he’s gone
Will bless the house and all

How grand it feels to click your heels
And join in the fun of the jigs and reels
I’m handing you no blarney
The likes you’ve never known
Is Christmas in Killarney
With all of the folks at home

An Irish Christmas

Compozitorii au continuat sa creeze colinde de-a lungul timpului. La mijlocul sec. XX, americanul Alfred Burt a compus numeroase colinde care au devenit foarte populare, fiind cântate atat in biserică, cat si in afara ei:

Alfred Burt – We’ll Dress the House

In Australia si Noua Zeelanda, Craciunul cade in mijlocul verii. Cu acest prilej, sunt organizate spectacole cu usile deschise in toate marile orase. Aceasta traditie poartă numele de “Carols by Candlelight”. La spectacole sunt invitati cantareti de opera, artistii teatrelor muzicale si interpreti de muzica populară. Audienta, tinand in maini lumânări aprinse, cântă colinde, acompaniată de celebritătile de pe scenă.

Colinde de Craciun si Anul Nou

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Categorie: Colinde de Craciun si Anul Nou

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    OANA spune:

    BIE IMI PLACE FELIZ NAVIDAD

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